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giovedì 7 settembre 2017

inglese grammatica - i pronomi relativi

inglese grammatica - i pronomi relativi

who that which whose where

I pronomi relativi non variano in relazione al genere o numero. Sostituiscono il nome  e servono ad unire due proposizioni

 The boy is my friend. The boy is sleeping

The boy who is sleeping is my friend

In inglese esistono due tipi di frasi relative : determinative e relative non determinative

Le frasi determinative aggiungono informazioni importanti  per l'identificazione della persona o cosa a cui il pronome si riferisce

The boy (whom) you met Yesterday is my boyfriend

Le frasi non determinative non forniscono informazioni fondamentali

Peter, whom  you met Yesterday il my boyfriend.

                                           persone                                   animali o cose

soggetto                       Who o that                                  which oppure that

complemento               whom oppure that                       whom oppure that

possesso                       whose                                           whose  oppure which

con preposizione          preposizione + who(m)               preposizione + which

                                               FRASI RELATIVE DETERMINATIVE

That può sostituire sia who che which quindi può essere usato  per persone animali o cose

That's the boy who lives next to my cousin

That'ts the boy that lives next to my cousin

whosse  è seguito  dalla cosa posseduta o dalla persona in relazione

That's the woman whose husband works in my office

Who  which o that usati come complemento diretto o indiretto possono essere omessi

That's the boy(who/whom/that) you met Yesterday  is my boyfriend

Nel caso  di complemento indiretto con la presenza di preposizione  questa viene collocata di solito alla fine della frase ed il pronome viene omesso
That's the boy (who/whom) I talked about

Whose non può essere omesso

a non confondere i pronomi relativi con la congiunzione that o con le question words who which whose

Gli avverbi relativi  where  when  why e how vengono di solito usati al posto di which

luogo Where al posto di  at - in  - on - to which

This is the restaurant where i usually dinner

tempo when al posto di  in - on - during which

It's midnight This is  the time when the ghost appear

causa why / the reason why (the reason for which)

I told you why I was there

modo  How ( the way in which)

This is how we managed to catch the train

frasi relative non determinative

                                                         persone                           animali o cose

soggetto                                               who                                  which

complemento diretto o indiretto        who                                    which

possesso                                            whose                                   whose

nelle frasi relative non determinative il pronome va sempre espresso anche quando  è oggetto
who  e which  non possono essere sostituiti da that

Pronomi relativi non determinativi  soggetto  who o which

Bob who wrote  a novel is a teacher

paris which has over 8 milions inhabitants is the capital of France

Pronomi relativi complemento diretto who whom e which

My doctor  who (who) I last saw before Christmas is working  abroad

last summer we stayed in my aunt's house  which is near the lake

Pronomi relativi complemento indiretto

John about whom  I spoke is leaving in Paris

John who I spoke about is leaving in Paris

il pronome relativo di possesso whose

Mary's cat whose tail was broken is fallen again from the roof

mercoledì 6 settembre 2017

inglese grammatica - i significati del verbo get

inglese grammatica - i significati del verbo get

Molti sono i significati del verbo to get  uno dei più usati della lingua inglese

To get può voler dire
  1. ottenere, ricevere es : He got a prize  - She got a letter  - He didn't get any answer
  2. persuadere           es : He got her to come
  3. arrivare andare    es  We got to the station late - I got here by bus
  4. si può usare nella forma passiva  es : He got killed
  5. to get può essere seguito da aggettivo o participio passato in questo caso ha il significato di divenire  e spesso corrisponde a un verbo italiano che ha forma riflessiva es :                                 to get cold   diventare freddo
                                                 to get married   sposarsi
                                                 to get dirty      sporcarsi
                                                 to get hungry diventare affamati

                                                 to get thirsty  diventare assetati

                                                 to get angry    arrabbiarsi

                                                to get dark           diventare buio
                                                 to get tired           stancarsi

                                                to get wet             bagnarsi

seguito da una preposizione spesso significa riuscire a

he got over the wall        riuscì a passare al di là del muro

he got through  the crowd   riuscì a passare tra la folla

ecco alcuni phrasal verbs

to get up        alzarsi

to get on          salire (sull'autobus)

to get into        entrare (in auto)

to get down       scendere

to get off            scendere (dall'autobus)

to get out of       scendere (dall'auto)

lunedì 10 luglio 2017

letteratura inglese - preromantic period

letteratura inglese - preromantic period

Historical background and literary Features of the period


Thomas Gray (1716-1771) - Roberti Burns (1759 - 1796 ) - William Blake (1757 - 1827) - William Cowper ( 1731 - 1800) - Edward Young ( 1683 -1765) - Williams Collins (1721 - 1759) - James Thomson (1700- 1748)  - James  Macpherson (1736 - 1796) - Thomas  Chatterton ( 1752 - 1770)

Samuel Johnson (1709-1784)

the Development of Novel Writing

Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) - Henry  Fielding (1707-1754)  - Laurence Sterne (1713-1768) - Tobias Smollet (1721-1771)
Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774) - Fanny Burney (1752-1840)

The Gothic Novel

Horace Walpole (1717-1797) and Ann Radcliffe (1764-1823)


James Boswell (1740- 1795)  - Edward Gibbon (1737-1794) - Edmund Burke (1729-1797) - William Godwin (1756-1836)


Richard Brinsley Sheridan (1751-1816)

American Literature of the Period 

Italian Literature of the Period

martedì 20 giugno 2017

inglese - esercizi sul condizionale tipo 1

inglese - esercizi sul condizionale tipo 1

mettere i verbi nelle parentesi  nel tempo corretto

  1. If i see him I  (give) .....................him a lift.
  2. The table will collapse if you (stand)................... on it.
  3. If you eat all that you (be)........................ ill.
  4. If I find your passport I (telephone) ......................you at once.
  5. The police  (arrest) ..................... him if they catch him.
  6. If you read in bad light you (ruin) ........................ your eyes.
  7. Someone  (steal) ...................... your car if you leave it unlocked.
  8. What will happen if my parachute (not open)......................
  9. If you mow the grass I (give) ..........................you 50 p.
  10. I (led).................... you my pearls if you promise to take care of them.
  11. If you (not go).................... away  I'll send for the police.
  12. I (be)......................very angry  if your dog bites me again.
  13. If he (be).................late  we'll go without him.
  14. She will be absolutely furious if she (hear)..............about this
  15. If you put on the kettle I (make).................the tea.
  16. If you give my dog a bone he(bury) .......................it at once.
  17. If we leave the car here it (not be ) ................. in anybody's way.
  18. He'lll be late for the train if he (not start) ....................at once
  19. If you come  late they (not let) you in.
  20. If you tell any more lies I (be) ..........................very angry indeed.
  21. Unless you work very hard you( not be)  successful.
  22. If I lend you 10 p when you (repay).........................me.
  23. We'll have to move upstairs if the river (rise) .....................any highet.
  24. If he (work) ....................hard today can he have a Holiday Tomorrow ?
  25. Ice (turn)........................ towater if you heat it.
  26. If the house (catch)............... fire we can get out by the fire escape.
  27. If you (not like) ...................... this one  I'll bring you another.
  28. Unless you are more careful you (have) .............................an accident.
  29. Tell him to ring me up if you (see) ................... him.
  30. If I tell you a secret you (promise).........................not to tell it to anyone else?
  31. If you  not believe .........................what  I say  ask you mother.
  32. you (buy) ....................... the house  if you like it ?
  33. If you will kindly sit down I (make).................... enquiries for you.
  34. Unless I have a quiet room  I ( not be able) ..................to do any work.
  35. Uless you pay him regularly he (not work)............................for you at all.
  36. Should you require anything else please (ring).................the bell for the attendant.


  1. shall give
  2. stand
  3. will be
  4. shall telephone
  5. will arrest
  6. will ruin
  7. will steal
  8. doesn't open
  9. shall give
  10. shall lend
  11. don't go
  12. shall be
  13. is
  14. hears
  15. shall make
  16. will bury
  17. won't be
  18. doesn't  start
  19. won't  let
  20. shall be
  21. won't be
  22. don't like
  23. rises
  24. works
  25. turns /will turns
  26. catches
  27. don't like
  28. will have
  29. see
  30. will you promise
  31. don't believe
  32. will you buy
  33. shall make
  34. shan't be able
  35. won't work
  36. ring

martedì 13 giugno 2017

inglese - phrasal verbs

Alcuni phrasal verbs

Sono verbi composti da più elementi: verbo e particella avverbiale oppure verbo e preposi-
zione che ne modificano il significato originale.
She turned off the radio (Spense la radio).
Usando i phrasal verbs la particella avverbiale può comparire prima o dopo l’oggetto se questo
è un sostantivo; se l’oggetto è un pronome, la particella avverbiale compare dopo di esso.
Ask out: invitare qualcuno fuori.
That handsome boy asked me out! We’re going to a movie
(Quel bel ragazzo mi ha invitata fuori! Andiamo a vedere un film).
Bring up:
1 allevare, educare.
He was brought up strictly (Ha ricevuto un’educazione severa).
2 sollevare (un argomento).
We will bring this up at the next meeting (Solleveremo la questione alla prossima riunione).
Break up:
1 sciogliersi.
The meeting broke up at 10 p.m. (Alle 22 la riunione si sciolse).
2 finire.
Their marriage has virtually broken up (Il loro matrimonio è praticamente finito).
Call up: chiamare.
The secretary will call the client up at 2:00 p.m.
(La segretaria chiamerà il cliente alle 14.00).
Carry on: continuare.
I’m sorry I interrupted you. Please carry on
(Mi spiace di avervi interrotto. Continuate pure).
 Take off:
1 decollare, partire.
The flight to New York took off at 6 p.m.
(L’aereo per New York partì alle 6 di pomeriggio).
2 essere assente dal lavoro.
I’m taking next week off (Sarà assente dal lavoro la settimana prossima).
3 togliere i vestiti, le scarpe…
Take your shoes off (Togliti le scarpe).
Think over: riflettere.
I will think it over (Ci penserò).
❏ Throw away: buttare.
Don’t throw these documents away because we’ll need them later
(Non buttare questi documenti perché ne avremo bisogno più tardi).
❏ Wait for: aspettare.
I’ve been waiting for the bus for almost an hour!
(Aspetto l’autobus da quasi un’ora!)
❏ Work out:
1 progettare, elaborare.
The plan is being worked out (Il progetto è allo studio).
2 risolvere, (fam.) risolvere i propri problemi, sistemare le cose.
Everything has worked out well (Tutto si è risolto per il meglio).
❏ Write down: annotare, prendere appunti.
Did you write the phone number down? (Hai preso nota del numero di telefono ?)❏ Carry out: eseguire, realizzare.
She carried her boss’s orders out exactly (Eseguì gli ordini del suo capo alla lettera).
❏ Check out:
1 pagare il conto e andarsene (da alberghi e simili).
Mr Johnson checked out this morning (Il sig. Johnson ha pagato il conto stamattina).
2 verificare, controllare.
They checked the whole place out for bombs
(Ispezionarono ovunque per controllare che non vi fossero bombe).
Cheer up: rallegrarsi, tirarsi su di morale.
He was sad about failing his test, so I took him out to dinner to cheer him up
(Era triste perché non aveva superato il test, e allora lo portai fuori a cena
per tirarlo su di morale).
 Dress up: vestirsi elegantemente.
Let’s dress up for the party! (Vestiamoci eleganti per la festa!)
Drop by: (fam.) far visita.
Drop by at any time (Vieni a trovarci in qualunque momento).
End up: finire.
If you don’t stop stealing, you’ll end up in jail!
(Se non la smetti di rubare finirai in prigione!)
Figure out: riuscire a capire, immaginarsi come, prevedere.
Can you figure out how the situation will develop?
(Riesci a immaginare che sviluppo avrà la situazione?)
Find out: scoprire.
Can you find out where the theatre is? (Puoi scoprire dov’è il teatro?)
Get up: alzarsi.
When he got up this morning it was still dark
(Quando si è alzato stamattina era ancora buio).
Hang up: riagganciare, chiudere una telefonata.
My ex-husband hung up when I phoned him
(Il mio ex marito riagganciò quando lo chiamai).
Hold on:
1 aspettare.
Hold on a minute (Aspetta un momento).
2 restare in linea (al telefono).
Hold on a minute (Rimanga in linea).
Hurry up: sbrigarsi.
We need to hurry up and leave or we’ll be late!
(Dobbiamo sbrigarci e andare, altrimenti arriveremo in ritardo!)
Look for: cercare.
I spent two hours looking for my glasses
(Ci sono volute due ore per cercare i miei occhiali).
Look forward to: non vedere l’ora di, essere impaziente.
I am looking forward to my vacation (Non vedo l’ora di essere in vacanza).
Look up: cercare informazioni.
If you don’t understand the word, look it up in a dictionary
(Se non capisci la parola cercala nel dizionario).
Run away: scappare, andar via.
He ran away with a sixteen-year-old girl (Scappò con una ragazza che ha sedici anni )

martedì 6 giugno 2017

inglese - quando si usa la preposizione at

inglese quando si usa la preposizione at

at breakfast/ lunch              a colazione/ pranzo

at Church/ school               in chiesa / a scuola stato in luogo

at all costs                           ad ogni costo

at ease                                 a proprio agio

at first                                 per prima cosa

at a glance                          in breve

at a guess                            a occhio e croce

at home                              a casa stato in luogo

at last                                 infine

at the latest                        al più tardi

at loss                                a perdita di

at once                              subito
at peace                              in pace

at present                            al momento

at profit                               profitto a

at any rate                           ad ogni modo

at random                            a casaccio

at sea                                   al mare

at same time                       allo stesso tempo

at times                               a volte

at work                               al lavoro

giovedì 25 maggio 2017

inglese descrizione delle persone

inglese descrizione delle persone

Key structures to use when describing a person

she is an elderly woman
her hands are gnarled now
she has a gentle kind face
she is  he mid-seventies, with greying hair
Always  wears clothes  the she makes herself

a description of a person may include

physical description
character description/general impressions
something about her/ his habits
comparisons  for example one member of the family and another
identification for example how this person can be identified in a Group

vocabulary for physical description

Below is a small selection of words  and phrases which can be used in conjunction with the key structures above to build up descriptions of people.
Study the example carefully  to see which of the key structures are used with different words  and phrases and be particularly careful when adding words of your own  to put them  with the correct structures.

age ( with the verb to be)

fifty years old
in her thirties
a Young sixty-five
middle-aged yaoungish
in her mid-sixties

she is fifty years old
He was an elderly man in his mid- sixties


colour dark fair blonde greying
length an style  short curly hair long straight hair balding bald

he had short fair hair
his hair is dark and curly
he is balding


colour  blue  brown  green
shape  large Almond shaped  round
character  direct laughing warm cold

example she has larghe brown eyes
his eyes are warm and laughing


smooth, lined, wrinkled, round the eyes, round, thin

example he had a round, smooth face
his face was lined

other facial features

eyebrows   bushy
nose        turned up
mouth wide,  mean, generous

example he had bushy  eyebrows and turned-up nose
her mouth was wide  and generous

size and shape ( with the verb to be)

big, small
thin, slim, plump, fat
tall, short
broad-shouldered, well-built

she was tall and thin
he is well-built

deep, soft, loud, piercing


her voice  was loud and piercing

an apron, a cap  a suit
chothes that she makes herself, welldressed
fashionable/shabby/shapeless clothes


she wears her best suit
he was wll-dressed man